ما ضرر و مساوئ عدم الختان عند الصبيان  ؟circumcision

 

ما هي الأمراض و المخاطر التي يمكن أن تصيب الطفل غير المختون ؟

حتى الآن أثبتت الدراسات أن الطفل و الشاب غير المختون يمكن أن يكون عرضةً لواحد او أكثر من الإصابات التالية :

  1. تكرر التهاب المجاري البولية عند الطفل  , خاصة في السنة الأولى من عمر الطفل

  2. صعوبة تنظيف القلفة من الداخل و بالتالي احتمال حدوث التهاب القلفة

  3. احتمال حدوث تضيق القلفة و الحاجة للختان على كبر

  4. ازدياد احتمال الإصابة بالأمراض المنتقلة عن طريق الجنس (  sexually transmitted disease (STD عند الأشخاص المعرضين لهذه الأمراض

  5. ازدياد احتمال حدوث سرطان القضيب في الكبر

  6. ازدياد احتمال حدوث سرطان عنق الرحم عند زوجة الرجل غير المختون إذا أصيب هذا الرجل بالفيروس الحليمي البشري

  7. ازدياد احتمال العدوى بفيروس  الآيدز (  السيدا-  مرض نقص المناعة المكتسب ) عند الأشخاص العرضين لهذا المرض

الدكتور رضوان غزال - last update 26.11.07

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الصفحة الرئيسية

 

 : REFERENCESالمصادر

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  3. Wallerstein E. Circumcision: the uniquely American Medical Enigma. Urol Clin North Am. 1985;12:123-132

  4. Wiswell TE. Enzanauer RU, Holton ME. et al. Declining Frequency of circumcision: implications for changes in the absolute incidence and male to female sex ratio of urinary tract infection in early infancy. Pediatrics, 1987;79:338-342

  5. Gairdner, D. The Fate of the Foreskin: a study of circumcision, Br Med J. 1949;2:1433-1437

  6. Warner E, Strashin E. Benefits and risks of circumcision. Can Med Assoc J, 1981;125: 967-976, 992

  7. Cutler S.J. Young J.L., Jr. eds. Third National Cancer Survey: Incidence Data National Cancer Institute Monograph 41. Bethesda. MD., US Dept of Health, Education and Welfare, 1975

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  9. Young J L. Surveillance, epidemiology and End Results Incidence and Mortality Data 1978-1982. Bethesda, MD: US Dept of Health and Human Services: YEAR;PAGE

  10. Persky L., deKernion J. Carcinoma of the penis. Cancer J Clin 1986:35:5:258 273

  11. Leiter E., Lefkovitis A.M. Circumcision and penile carcinoma. NY State J Med. 1975:75:1520 1522

  12. Boczko S., Freed S., Penile carcinoma in young circumcised males. NY State J Med. 1979:79:1903-1904

  13. Rogus BJ. Squamous cell carcinoma in a young circumcised man. J Urol. 1987:138:861 862

  14. Wolbarst Al. Circumcision and penile cancer. Lancet. 1932 1:150 153

  15. Kochen M., McCurdy S., Circumcision and the risk of cancer of the penis: a life table analysis. Am J Dis Child. 1980,134:484-486. [Abstract]

  16. Swafford TD., Circumcision and the risk of cancer of the penis. Am J Dis Child. 1985:139:112

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  19. Ginsburg CM, McCracken GH Jr., Urinary tract infections in young infants. Pediatrics 1982:69:409 412

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  22. Roberts IA. Does circumcision prevent urinary tract infection? J Urol. 1986:135:991 992

  23. Wiswell TE, Miller GM, Gelston HM. et al. The effect of circumcision status on periurethral bacterial flora during the first year of life. J Pediatr. 1988;113;442 446

  24. Wilson RA. Circumcision and venereal disease. Can Med Assoc J. 1947:56:54-66

  25. Parker SW, Stewart AJ, Wren MN et al. Circumcision and sexually transmissible disease. Med J Aust. 1983:2:288 299

  26. Smith GL, Greenup R, Takafuji ET. Circumcision as a risk factor for urethritis in racial groups. Am J Public Health. 1987:77:452 454

  27. Thirumoorthy T, Sng EH, Doraisingham S. et al. Purulent penile ulcers of patients in Singapore, Genitourin Med. 1986:62: 252-255 [Abstract]

  28. Oriel JD. Condyloma acuminata as a sexually transmitted disease. Dermatol Clin 1983;1:93 102

  29. Taylor PK, Rodin P. Herpes genitalis and circumcision. Br J Vener Dis 1975;51:274 277 [Abstract]

  30. Baird PJ. The causation of cervical cancer, part II: the role of human papilloma and other viruses. In: Singer A, ed 1985 Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynecology. London, England; WB Saunders Co; 1985:12:19 32

  31. Kaufman RH, Adam E. Herpes simplex virus and human papilloma virus in the development of cervical carcinoma. Clin Obstet Gyn 1986;29:678 692

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  34. Kessler II. Etiological concepts in cervical carcinogenesis. Appl Pathol. 1987;5:57-75

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  36. Dixon S., Snyder J., Holve R. et al. Behavioral effects of circumcision with and without anesthesia. J Devel Behav Pediatr. 1984;5:246-250

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  38. Marshall RE, Porter FL, Rogers AG, et al. Circumcision, II: Effects upon mother infant interaction. Early Hum Dev. 1982,7:367 374

  39. Gee WF, Ansell JS. Neonatal circumcision: a ten year over view with comparison of the Gomco clamp and the Plastibell device. Pediatrics. 1976;58:824 827

  40. Harkavy KL. The circumcision debate. Pediatrics. 1987;79:649 650. Letter

  41. Kirya C, Werthmann MW. Neonatal circumcision and penile dorsal nerve block-a painless procedure. J Pediatr. 1978:92:998 1000

  42. Williamson PS, Williamson ML. Physiologic stress reduction by a local anesthetic during newborn circumcision. Pediatrics. 1983;71:36 40

  43. Holve RL, Bromberger PJ, Groveman HD, et al. Regional anesthesia during newborn circumcision: effect on infant pain response. Clin Pediatrics 1983:22:813 818

  44. Stang HJ, Gunnar MR, Snellman L, et al. Local anesthesia for neonatal circumcision; effect on distress and cortisol response. JAMA 1988;259:1507 1511 [Abstract]

  45. Kaplan GW. Complications of circumcision. Urol Clin North Am 1983,10:543 549

  46. Wiswell TE. The circumcision debate. Pediatrics 1987; 79 649 650.Letter

  47. King LR. Neonatal circumcision in the United States in 1982. J Urol. 1982:128:1136 1136

  48. Kochen M, McCurdy SA. Circumcision. Am J Dis Child. 1979;133:1079 1080. Letter

  49. Sara CA, Lowry CJ. A complication of circumcision and dorsal nerve block of the penis. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1985,13:79 82

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  51. Maxwell LG, Yaster M, Wetzell RC, et al. Penile nerve block for newborn circumcision. Obstet Gynecol. 1987:70:415 419


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